Hillary Clinton | Wikipedia audio article



hillarie Diane Rodham Clinton born October 26 1947 is an American politician and diplomat who served as the first lady of the United States from 1993 to 2001 u.s. senator from New York from 2001 to 2009 67th United States Secretary of State from 2009 to 2013 and is the Democratic Party's nominee for president of the United States in the 2016 election born in Chicago Illinois and raised in the Chicago suburb of Park Ridge Clinton graduated from Wellesley College in 1969 and earned a Juris Doctor from Yale Law School in 1973 after serving as a congressional legal counsel she moved to Arkansas and married Bill Clinton in 1975 in 1977 she co-founded Arkansas advocates for children and families she was appointed the first female chair of the Legal Services Corporation in 1978 and became the first female partner at Rose law firm the following year as first lady of Arkansas she led a task force whose recommendations helped reform Arkansas as public schools as first lady of the United States Clinton was an advocate for gender equality and health care reform her marital relationship came under public scrutiny during the Lewinsky scandal which led her to issue a statement that reaffirmed her commitment to the marriage in 2000 Clinton was elected as the first female senator from New York she was re-elected to the Senate in 2006 running for president in 2008 she won far more delegates than any previous female candidate but lost the Democratic nomination to Barack Obama during her tenure as US Secretary of State in the Obama administration from 2009 to 2013 Clinton responded to the Arab Spring by advocating military intervention in Libya she helped to organize a diplomatic isolation and international sanctions regime against Iran in an effort to force curtailment of that country's nuclear program this would eventually lead to the multinational joint comprehensive plan of action agreement in 2015 upon leaving her cabinet position after Obama's first term she wrote her fifth book and undertook speaking engagements Clinton made a second presidential run in 2016 she received the most votes and primary delegates in the 2016 Democratic primaries and formally accepted her party's nomination for President of the United States on July 28 2016 with vice presidential running mate senator Tim Kaine she became the first female candidate to be nominated for president by a major US political party she lost the presidential election to Republican opponent Donald Trump in the electoral college despite winning a plurality of the popular vote she received more than 65 million votes the third highest count in a u.s. presidential election behind Obama's victories in 2008 and 2012 following her loss she wrote her third memoir what happened and launched onward together a political action organization dedicated to fundraising for progressive political groups early life in education topic early life hillarie Diane Rodham was born on October 26 1947 at Edgewater Hospital in Chicago Illinois she was raised in a United Methodist family that first lived in Chicago when she was three years old her family moved to the Chicago suburb of Park Ridge her father Hugh Rodham was of English and Welsh descent and managed a small but successful textile business her mother Dorothy Howell was a homemaker of Dutch English french-canadian from Quebec Scottish and Welsh descent Clinton has two younger brothers Hugh and Tony as a child Rodham was a favorite student among her teachers at the public schools that she attended in Park Ridge she participated in swimming and softball and earned numerous badges as a brownie and a Girl Scout she has often told a story of being inspired by US efforts during the space race and sending a letter to NASA around 1961 asking what she could do to become an astronaut only to be informed that women were not being accepted into the program she attended Maine East High School where she participated in the student council the school newspaper and was selected for the National Honor Society she was elected class vice president for her junior year but then lost the election for class president for her senior year against two boys one of whom told her that you are really stupid if you think a girl can be elected president for her senior year she and other students were transferred to the then-new Maine South High School where she was a National Merit Finalist and was voted most likely to succeed she graduated in 1965 in the top 5% of her class Radames mother wanted her to have an independent professional career and her father who was otherwise a traditionalist felt that his daughter's abilities and opportunities should not be limited by gender she was raised in a politically conservative household and she helped canvas Chicago's South Side at age 13 after the very close 1960 u.s. presidential election she saw evidence of electoral fraud such as voting list entries showing addresses that were empty Lots against Republican candidate Richard Nixon and later volunteered to campaign for Republican candidate Barry Goldwater in the u.s. presidential election of 90 sixty-four Radames early political development was shaped most by her high school history teacher like her father a fervent anti-communist who introduced her to goldwater's the conscience of a conservative and by her Methodist youth minister like her mother concerned with issues of social justice with whom she saw and afterwards briefly met civil rights leader Martin Luther King jr. at a 1962 speech in Chicago's Orchestra Hall topic Wellesley College years in 1965 Rodham enrolled at Wellesley College where she majored in political science during her freshman year she served as president of the Wellesley Young Republicans as the leader of this Rockefeller Republican oriented group she supported the elections of moderate Republicans John Lindsay – mayor of New York City and Massachusetts Attorney General Edward Brooke – the United States Senate she later stepped down from this position in 2003 Clinton would write that her views concerning the American civil rights movement and the Vietnam War were changing in her early college years in a letter to her youth minister at that time she described herself as a mind conservative and a heart liberal in contrast to the factions in the 1960s that advocated radical actions against the political system she sought to work for change within it by her junior year Rodham became a supporter of the anti-war presidential nomination campaign of Democrat Eugene McCarthy in early 1968 she was elected president of the Wellesley College Government Association and served through early 1969 following the assassination of Martin Luther King jr. Rodham organized a two-day student strike and worked with Welles Lee's black students to recruit more black students and faculty in her student government role she played a role in keeping Wellesley from being embroiled in the student disruptions common to other colleges a number of her fellow students thought she might someday become the first female president of the United States to help her better understand her changing political views professor Alan Scheckter assigned Rodham to intern at the House Republican Conference and she attended that Wellesley in Washington summer program Rodham was invited by moderate New York Republican representative Charles Goodell to help Governor Nelson Rockefellers late entry campaign for the Republican nomination Rodham attended the 1968 Republican National Convention in Miami Beach however she was upset by the way Richard Nixon's campaign portrayed rockefeller and by what she perceived as the conventions veiled racist messages and left the Republican Party for good Rodham wrote her senior thesis a critique of the tactics of radical community organizer Saul Alinsky under fessor schechter years later while she was first lady access to her thesis was restricted at the request of the White House and it became the subject of some speculation the thesis was later released in 1969 she graduated with a Bachelor of Arts with departmental honors in political science after some fellow seniors requested that the college administration allow a student speaker at commencement she became the first student in Wellesley College history to speak at the event her address followed that of commencement speaker Senator Edward Brooke after her speech she received a standing ovation that lasted seven minutes she was featured in an article published in Life magazine due to the response to a part of her speech that criticized senator Brooke she also appeared on earth cups in its nationally syndicated television talk show as well as in Illinois and New England newspapers that summer she worked her way across Alaska washing dishes in Mount McKinley National Park and slamming salmon in a fish processing cannery in Valdez which fired her and shut down overnight when she complained about unhelpful conditions soppec Yale Law School and postgraduate studies Rodham then entered Yale Law School where she served on the editorial board of the Yale review of the law and social action during her second year she worked at the Yale Child Study Center learning about new research on early childhood brain development and working as a research assistant on the seminal work beyond the best interests of the child 1973 she also took on cases of child abuse at Yale New Haven Hospital and volunteered at New Haven legal services to provide free legal advice for the poor in the summer of 1970 she was awarded a grant to work at Marian Wright Edelman 's Washington research project where she was assigned to senator Walter Mondale Subcommittee on migratory labor there she researched various migrant workers issues including education health and housing Edelman later became a significant mentor Rodham was recruited by political adviser and Wexler to work on the 1970 campaign of Connecticut US Senate candidate Joseph Duffy with Rodham later crediting Wexler with providing her first job in politics in the spring of 1971 she began dating Bill Clinton who was also a law student at Yale during the summer she interned at the Oakland California law firm of true huffed Walker and Bernstein the firm was well known for its support of constitutional rights civil liberties and radical causes two of its four partners were current or former communist party members Rodham worked on child custody in other cases Clinton cancelled his original summer plans in order to live with her in California the couple continued living together in New Haven when they returned to law school the following summer Rodham and Clinton campaigned in Texas for unsuccessful 1972 Democratic presidential candidate George McGovern she received a Juris Doctor degree from Yale in 1973 having stayed on an extra year to be with Clinton he first proposed marriage to her following graduation but she declined uncertain if she wanted to tie her future to his Rodham began a year of postgraduate study on children and medicine at the Yale Child Study Center in late 1973 her first scholarly article children under the was published in the Harvard educational review discussing the new children's rights movement the article stated that child citizens were powerless individuals and argued that children should not be considered equally incompetent from birth to attaining legal age but instead that courts should presume competence except when there is evidence otherwise on a case-by-case basis the article became frequently cited in the field topic marriage family law career and first lady of Arkansas topic from the East Coast to Arkansas during her postgraduate studies Rodham served as staff attorney for Edelman's newly founded Children's Defense Fund in Cambridge Massachusetts and as a consultant to the Carnegie Council on children in 1974 she was a member of the impeachment inquiry staff in Washington DC and advised the House Committee on the judiciary during the Watergate scandal under the guidance of chief counsel John doar and senior member Bernard W Nussbaum Rodham helped research procedures of impeachment and the historical grounds and standards for impeachment the committee's work culminated with the resignation of President Richard Nixon in August 1974 by then Rodham was viewed as someone with a bright political future Democratic political organizer and consultant Betsy Wright had moved from Texas to Washington the previous year to help guide Radames career Wright thought she had the potential to become a future senator or president meanwhile boyfriend Bill Clinton had repeatedly asked Rodham to marry him but she continued to demur after failing the District of Columbia Bar Exam and passing the Arkansas exam Rodham came to a key decision as she later wrote I chose to follow my heart instead of my head she thus followed Clinton to Arkansas rather than staying in Washington where career prospects were brighter he was then teaching law and running for a seat in the US House of Representatives in his home state in August 1974 Rodham moved to Fayetteville Arkansas and became one of only two female faculty members in the School of Law the University of Arkansas Fayetteville topic early Arkansas years at the university rodham taught classes in criminal law where she was considered to be a rigorous teacher who was tough with her grades she became the first director of a new legal aid clinic at the school where she secured support from the local Bar Association and gained federal funding in one of her cases the court required her to serve as defense counsel to a man accused of raping a twelve-year-old girl after her request to be relieved of the assignment failed Clinton used an effective defense and directed her client to plead guilty to a much lesser charge decades later the victim said that the defense counsel had put her through hell during the legal process Hillary Clinton has called the trial a terrible case during her time in Fayetteville rodham and several other women founded the city's first rape crisis center Rodham still harbored doubts about getting married she was concerned that her separate identity would be lost and that her accomplishments would be viewed in light of someone else in 1974 Bill Clinton lost a congressional race Rodham and Bill Clinton but a house in Fayetteville in the summer of 1975 and she finally agreed to marry him the wedding took place on October 11 1975 in a Methodist ceremony in their living room a story about the marriage in the Arkansas Gazette indicated that she decided to retain the name Hillary Rodham her motivation was threefold she wanted to keep the couple's professional lives separate avoid apparent conflicts of interest and as she told a friend at the time it showed that I was still me the decision upset both mothers who were more traditional in 1976 Rodham temporarily relocated to Indianapolis in order to serve as an indiana state campaign organizer for the presidential campaign of Jimmy Carter in November 1976 Bill Clinton was elected Arkansas Attorney General and the couple moved to the state capital of Little Rock in February 1977 Rodham joined the venerable Rose law firm a bastion of our kenzan political and economic influence she specialized in patent infringement and intellectual property law while also working pro bono in child advocacy she rarely performed litigation work in court Rodham maintained her interest in children's law in Family Policy publishing scholarly articles children's policies abandonment and neglect in 1977 n children's rights a legal perspective in 1979 the latter continued her argument that children's legal competence depended upon their age and other circumstances and that in serious medical rights cases judicial intervention was sometimes warranted an American Bar Association chair later said her articles were important not because they were radically new but because they helped formulate something that had been inchoate historian Garry wills would later describe her as one of the more important scholar activists of the last two decades while conservatives said her theories would usurp traditional parental authority would allow children to file frivolous lawsuits against their parents and exemplified critical legal studies run amok in 1977 Rodham co-founded Arkansas advocates for children and families a state-level alliance with the Children's Defense Fund later that year President Jimmy Carter for whom Rodham had been the 1976 campaign director of field operations in Indiana appointed her to the board of directors of the Legal Services Corporation and she served in that capacity from 1978 until the end of 1981 from mid-1972 mid-1982 was the chair of that board the first woman to have the job during her time as chair funding for the corporation was expanded from 90 million dollars to three hundred million dollars subsequently she successfully fought President Ronald Reagan's attempts to reduce the funding and change the nature of the organization following her husband's November 1978 election as governor of Arkansas Rodham became that state's first lady in January 1979 she would hold that title for 12 non-consecutive years 1979 to 81 1983 to 92 Clinton appointed his wife to be the chair of the rural health advisory committee the same year where she secured federal funds to expand medical facilities in Arkansas poorest areas without affecting doctors fees in 1979 Rodham became the first woman to be made a full partner of rose law firm from 1978 until they entered the White house she had a higher salary than her husband during 1978 and 1979 while looking to supplement their income Rodham engaged in the trading of cattle futures contracts an initial $1,000 investment generated nearly $100,000 when she stopped trading after ten months at this time the couple also began their ill-fated investment in the Whitewater Development Corporation real estate venture with Jim and Susan mcdougal both of these became subjects of controversy in the 1990s on February 27th 1980 Rodham gave birth to her only child daughter Chelsea in November 1980 Bill Clinton was defeated in his bid for re-election topic later Arkansas years two years after leaving office bill clinton returned to his job as governor of arkansas after he won the election of 1982 during her husband's campaign hilary began to use the name hillary clinton or sometimes mrs. bill clinton to assuage the concerns of arkansas voters she also took a leave of absence from rose law to campaign for him full time during her second stint as first lady of Arkansas she made a point of using Hillary Rodham Clinton as her name she was named chair of the Arkansas education standards committee in 1983 where she sought to reform the state's court-sanctioned public education system in one of the clinton governorships most important initiatives she fought a prolonged but ultimately successful battle against the Arkansas Education Association to establish mandatory teacher testing and state standards for curriculum and classroom size it became her introduction into the politics of a highly visible public policy effort in 1985 she introduced Arkansas's home instruction program for preschool youth a program that helps parents work with their children in preschool preparedness and literacy she was named Arkansas woman of the year in 1983 an Arkansas mother of the year in 1984 Clinton continued to practice law with the rose law firm while she was first lady of Arkansas she earned less than the other partners as she build fewer hours but still made more than $200,000 in her final year there the firm considered her a Rainmaker because she brought in clients partly thanks to the prestige she lent it into her corporate board connections she was also very influential in the appointment of state judges Bill Clinton's Republican opponent in his 1986 gubernatorial reelection campaign that cused the Clintons of conflict of interest because Rose law did state business the Clintons countered the charge by saying that state fees were walled off by the firm before her profits were calculated from 1982 to 1988 Clinton was on the board of directors sometimes his chair of the new world foundation which funded a variety of new left interest groups from 1987 to 1991 she was the first chair of the American Bar Association's commission on women in the profession created to address gender bias in the legal profession and induce the Association to adopt measures to combat it she was twice named by the National Law Journal as one of the 100 most influential lawyers in America in 1988 and in 1991 when Bill Clinton thought about not running again for governor in 1990 Hillary Clinton considered running but private polls were unfavorable and in the end he ran and was re-elected for the final time Clinton served as chairman of the board of the Children's Defense Fund and on the board of the Arkansas Children's Hospital's legal services 1988 to 92 in addition to her positions with nonprofit organizations she also held positions on the corporate board of directors of TCBY 1985 to 92 Walmart stores 1986 to 92 and Lafarge 1990 to 92 TCBY and Walmart were Arkansas based companies that were also clients of rose law Clinton was the first female member on Walmart's board added following pressure on chairman Sam Walton to name a woman to it once there she pushed successfully for Walmart to adopt more environmentally friendly practices was largely unsuccessful in a campaign for more women to be added to the company's management and was silent about the company's famously anti labor union practices according to Dan Kauffman author of the fall of Wisconsin awareness of this later became a factor in her loss of credibility with organized labor helping contribute to her loss in the 2016 election where slightly less than half of union members voted for Donald Trump topic bill clinton presidential campaign of 1992 Clinton received sustained national attention for the first time when her husband became a candidate for the 1992 Democratic presidential nomination before the New Hampshire primary tabloid publications printed assertions that Bill Clinton had engaged in an extramarital affair with Jennifer flowers in response the Clintons appeared together on 60 minutes we're buildin I'd the affair but acknowledged causing pain in my marriage this joint appearance was credited with rescuing his campaign during the campaign Hilary made culturally disparaging remarks about Tammy Wynette's outlook on marriage as described in her classic song stand by your man and later in the campaign about how she could have chosen to be like women staying home and baking cookies and having teas but wanted to pursue her career instead the remarks were widely criticized particularly by those who were or defended stay-at-home mothers and in retrospect were ill considered by her own admission bill said that in electing him the nation would get two for the price of one referring to the prominent role his wife would assume beginning with Daniel Wattenberg August 1992 the American Spectator article the Lady Macbeth of Little Rock Hilary's own past ideological and ethical record came under attack from conservatives at least twenty other articles in major publications also drew comparisons between her and Lady Macbeth topic First Lady of the United States 1993 to 2001 when Bill Clinton took office as president in January 1993 Hillary Rodham Clinton became the first lady and her press secretary reiterated that she would be using that form of her name she was the first inaugural first lady to have earned a postgraduate degree and to have her own professional career up to the time of entering the White House she was also the first to have an office in the West Wing of the White House in addition to the usual first lady offices in the East Wing she was part of the innermost circle vetting appointments to the new administration and her choices filled at least eleven top level positions and dozens more lower-level ones after Eleanor Roosevelt Clinton was regarded as the most openly empowered presidential wife in American history some critics called it inappropriate for the first lady to play a central role in matters of public policy supporters pointed out that Clinton's role in policy was no different from that of other White House advisors and that voters had been well aware that she would play an active role in her husband's presidency Bill Clinton's campaign promise of two for the price of one led opponents to refer derisive Lee to the Clintons as co-president or sometimes use the Arkansas label billary the pressures of conflicting ideas about the role of a first lady were enough to send Hillary Clinton into imaginary discussions with the also politically active Eleanor Roosevelt from the time she came to Washington Hillary also found refuge in a prayer group of the fellowship that featured many wives of conservative Washington figures triggered in part by the death of her father in April 1993 she publicly sought to find a synthesis of Methodist teachings liberal religious political philosophy and tikkun editor Michael Lerner's politics of meaning to overcome what she saw is America's sleeping sickness of the soul that would lead to a willingness to remote society by redefining what it means to be a human being in the 20th century moving into a new millennium topic healthcare and other policy initiatives in January 1993 President Clinton named Hillary to chair a task force on national health care reform hoping to replicate the success she had in leading the effort for Arkansas education reform unconvinced regarding the merits of the north american free trade agreement NAFTA she privately urged that passage of health care reform be given higher priority the recommendation of the task force became known as the clinton health care plan a comprehensive proposal that would require employer's to provide health coverage to their employees through individual health maintenance organizations its opponents quickly derided the plan as Hillary care and it faced opposition from even some Democrats in Congress some protesters against the proposed plan became vitriolic and during a July 1994 bus tour to rally support for the plan Clinton wore a bulletproof vest at times failing to gather enough support for a floor vote in either the House or the Senate although Democrats controlled both chambers the proposal was abandoned in September 1994 Clinton later acknowledged in her memoir that her political inexperience partly contributed to the defeat but cited many other factors the first lady's approval ratings which had generally been in the high 50s percent range during her first year fell to 44 percent in April 1994 and 35 percent by September 1994 Republicans made the Clinton health care plan a major campaign issue of the 1994 midterm elections Republicans saw a net gain of 53 seats in the House election and 7 in the Senate election winning control of both many analysts and pollsters found the plan to be a major factor in the Democrats defeat especially among independent voters the White House subsequently sought to downplay Clinton's role in shaping policy opponents of universal health care would continue to use Hillary care as a pejorative label for similar plans by others along with senators Ted Kennedy and Orrin Hatch Clinton was a force behind the passage of the state Children's Health Insurance Program in 1997 a federal bill that gave state support to children whose parents could not provide them health coverage and conducted outreach efforts on behalf of enrolling children in the program once it became a law she promoted nation immunization against childhood diseases and encouraged older women to get a mammogram for breast cancer screening with coverage provided by Medicare she successfully sought to increase research funding for prostate cancer and childhood asthma at the National Institutes of Health the first lady worked to investigate reports of an illness that affected veterans of the Gulf War which became known as the Gulf War Syndrome enactment of welfare reform was a major goal of Bill Clinton's presidency but when the first two bills on the issue came from a republican-controlled Congress that lacked protections for people coming off welfare hillary urged him to veto the bills which he did a third version came up during his 1996 general election campaign that restored some of the protections but cut the scope of benefits in other areas critics including her past mentor Edelman urged her to get the President to veto it again but she decided to support the bill which became the Welfare Reform Act of 1996 as the best political compromise available this caused a rift with Edelman that Hillary later called sad and painful together with Attorney General Janet Reno Clinton helped create the office on violence against women at the Department of Justice in 1997 she initiated and shepherded the adoption and Safe Families Act which she regarded as her greatest accomplishment as first lady in 1999 she was instrumental in the passage of the foster care independence Act which doubled federal monies for teenagers aging out of foster care as first lady Clinton was the host for various White House conferences including ones on child care 1997 on early childhood development and learning 1997 and on children and adolescents 2000 she also hosted the first-ever White House Conference on teenagers 2000 and the first-ever White House Conference on philanthropy 1999 Clinton traveled to 79 countries during this time breaking the mark for most traveled first lady held by Pat Nixon she did not hold a security clearance or attend national security council meetings but played a role in US diplomacy attaining its objectives a March 1995 five-nation trip to South Asia on behest of the US State Department and without her husband sought to improve relations with India and Pakistan Clinton was troubled by the plight of women she encountered but found a warm response from the people of the countries she visited and gained a better relationship with the American press corps the trip was a transformative experience for her and presaged her eventual career in diplomacy in a September 1995 speech before the Fourth World Conference on women in Beijing Clinton argued forcefully against practices that abused women around the world and in the People's Republic of China itself declaring that it is no longer acceptable to discuss women's rights as separate from human rights delegates from over 180 countries heard her say if there is one message that echoes forth from this conference let it be that human rights are women's rights and women's rights are human rights once and for all in doing so she resisted both internal administration and Chinese pressure to soften her remarks the speech became a key moment in the empowerment of women and years later women around the world would recite Clinton's key phrases during the late 1990s she was one of the most prominent international figures to speak out against the treatment of Afghan women by the Taliban she helped create vital voices an international initiative sponsored by the u.s. to encourage the participation of women in the political processes of their countries it in Clinton's own visits encouraged women to make themselves heard in the Northern Ireland peace process topic white water and other investigations first lady clinton was a subject of several investigations by the United States Office of the Independent Counsel committees of the US Congress and the press the whitewater controversy was the focus of media attention from its publication in a New York Times report during the 1992 presidential campaign and throughout her time as first lady the Clintons had lost their late 1970s investment in the White Water Development Corporation at the same time their partners in that investment Jim and Susan mcdougal operated Madison guarantee a Savings and Loan institution that retained the legal services of rose law firm and may have been improperly subsidizing white water losses Madison guarantee later failed in Clinton's work at Rose was scrutinized for a possible conflict of interest in representing the bank before state regulators that her husband had appointed she said she had done minimal work for the bank independent counsels Robert Fisk and Kenneth Starr subpoenaed Clinton's legal billing records she said she did not know where they were after a two-year search the records were found in the first lady's white house book room and delivered to investigators in early 1996 the delayed appearance of the records sparked intense interest in another investigation concerning how they surfaced and where they had been Clinton's staff attributed the problem to continual changes in White House storage areas since the move from the Arkansas governor's mansion On January 26 1996 Clinton became the first first lady to be subpoenaed to testify before a federal grand jury after several independent counsels had investigated a final report was issued in 2000 that stated there was insufficient evidence that either Clinton had engaged in criminal wrongdoing scrutiny of the May 1993 firings of the White House travel office employees an affair that became known as travelgate began with charges that the White House had used audited financial irregularities in the travel office operation as an excuse to replace the staff with friends from Arkansas the 1996 discovery of a two-year old White House memo caused the investigation to focus on whether Clinton had Orchestra the firings and whether the statements she made to investigators about her role in the firings were true the 2000 final independent council report concluded she was involved in the firings and that she had made factually false statements but that there was insufficient evidence that she knew the statements were false or knew that her actions would lead to firings to prosecute her in March 1994 newspaper reports revealed her spectacular profits from cattle futures trading in 1978-79 the press made allegations that Clinton had engaged in a conflict of interest and disguised a bribery several individuals analyzed her trading records but no formal investigation was made and she was never charged with any wrongdoing an outgrowth of the travelgate investigation was the June 1996 discovery of improper White House access to hundreds of FBI background reports on former Republican White House employees and affair that some called filegate accusations were made that Clinton had requested these files and that she had recommended hiring an unqualified individual to head the White House security office the 2000 final Independent Counsel report found no substantial or credible evidence that Clinton had any role or showed any misconduct in the matter in early 2001 a controversy arose over gifts sent to the White House rather than personally to the Clintons there was a question whether the furnishings were White House property or the Clinton's personal property during the last year of Bill Clinton's time in office those gifts were removed and shipped to the Clinton's private residence topic response to Lewinsky scandal in 1998 the clintons private concerns became the subject of much speculation when investigations revealed that the president had engaged in an extramarital affair with White House intern Monica Lewinsky events surrounding the Lewinsky scandal eventually led to the impeachment of the president by the House of Representatives he was later acquitted by the Senate when the allegations against her husband were first made public Hillary Clinton stated that the allegations were part of a vast right-wing conspiracy she characterized the Lewinsky charges as the latest in a long organized collaborative series of charges by bills political enemies rather than any wrongdoing by her husband she later said that she had been misled by her husband's initial claims that no affair had taken place after the evidence of President Clinton's encounters with Lewinsky became incontrovertible she issued a public statement reaffirming her commitment to their marriage but privately was reported to be furious at him and was unsure if she wanted to stay in the marriage the White House residents staff noticed a pronounced level of tension between the couple during this period public reaction varied women variously admired her strength and poise in private matters that were made public sympathized with her as a victim of her husband's insensitive behavior criticized her as being an enabler to her husband's indiscretions or accused her of cynically staying in a failed marriage as a way of keeping her even fostering her own political influence her public approval ratings in the wake of the revelations shot upward to around 70 percent the highest they had ever been in her 2003 memoir she would attribute her decision to stay married to a love that has persisted for decades an add no one understands me better and no one can make me laugh the way build us even after all these years he is still the most interesting energizing and fully alive person I have ever met issues that surrounded the Lewinsky scandal left Bill Clinton with substantial legal bills in 2014 Hillary would state that she and Bill had left the White House not only dead broke but in debt the statement may have been literally accurate but ignored the potentially enormous earning power of ex presidents who gave paid speeches after leaving office the couple would also have the ability to secure loans from banks soppec traditional duties Clinton initiated and was the founding chair of save America's treasures a nationwide effort matching federal funds with private donations in order to preserve and restore historic items and sites including the flag that inspired the star-spangled banner and the First Lady's Historic Site in Canton Ohio she was head of the White House millenium Council and hosted millennium evenings a series of lectures that discussed future studies one of which became the first live simultaneous webcast from the White House Clinton also created the first White House sculpture garden located in the jacqueline kennedy garden which displayed large contemporary American works of art loaned from museums in the White House Clinton placed donated handicrafts of contemporary American artisans such as pottery and glassware on rotating display in the state rooms she oversaw the restoration of the Blue Room to be historically authentic to the period of James Monroe in the map room to how it looked during World War two working with Arkansas interior decorator kaki Hawker Smith over an eight-year period she oversaw extensive privately funded redecoration efforts around the building often trying to make it look brighter these included changing the look of the treaty room a presidential study – along nineteenth-century lines overall the redecoration brought mixed notices with Victorian furnishings for the Lincoln sitting room being criticized the most Clinton hosted many large-scale events at the White House including a state dinner for visiting Chinese dignitaries a New Year's Eve celebration at the turn of the 21st century and a state dinner honoring the bicentennial of the White House in November 2000 topic United States Senate 2001 to 2013 equals equals equals 2000 US Senate election equals equals equals when New York's long-serving US Senator Daniel Patrick Moynihan announced his retirement in November 1998 several prominent Democratic figures including representative Charles Rangel of New York urged Clinton to run for Moynihan's open seat in the Senate election of 2000 once she decided to run the Clintons purchased a home in Chappaqua New York north of New York City in September 1999 she became the first First Lady of the United States to be a candidate for elected office initially Clinton expected to face Rudy Giuliani the mayor of New York City as her Republican opponent in the election Giuliani withdrew from the race in May 2000 after he was diagnosed with prostate cancer and matters related to his failing marriage became public Clinton then faced Rick Lazio a Republican member of the US House of Representatives who represented New York's 2nd congressional district throughout the campaign opponents accused Clinton of carpetbagging because she had never resided in New York State or participated in the state's politics before the 2000 Senate race Bill de Blasio was Clinton's campaign manager she began her drive to the US Senate by visiting all 62 counties in the state in a listening tour of small group settings she devoted considerable time in traditionally Republican upstate New York regions Clinton vowed to improve the economic situation in those areas promising to deliver 200,000 jobs to the state over her term her plan included tax credits to reward job creation and encourage business investment especially in the high-tech sector she called for personal tax cuts for college tuition and long-term care the contest drew national attention during a September debate Lott Co blundered when he seemed to invade Clinton's personal space by trying to get her to sign a fundraising agreement the campaign's of Clinton and lot Co along with Giuliani's initial effort spent a record combined 90 million dollars Clinton won the election on November 7 2000 with 55 percent of the vote to Lazio's 43 percent she was sworn in as US senator on Jan a third 2001 the event made her the only woman to serve in an elected office while and after serving his first lady topic first term upon entering the Senate Clinton maintained a low public profile and built relationships with senators from both parties she forged alliances with religiously inclined senators by becoming a regular participant in the Senate prayer breakfast she served on five Senate committees committee on budget 2000 102 Committee on Armed Services 2003 209 Committee on Environment and Public Works 2001 209 committee on health education labor and pensions 2001 209 and special committee on aging she was also a member of the Commission on Security and Cooperation in Europe 2001 209 following the September 11th terrorist attacks Clinton sought to obtain funding for the recovery efforts in New York City and security improvements in her state working with New York's senior senator Charles Schumer she was instrumental in securing 21 billion dollars in funding for the World Trade Center sites redevelopment she subsequently took a leading role in investigating the health issues faced by 9/11 first responders Clinton voted for the USA PATRIOT Act in October 2001 in 2005 when the act was up for renewal she expressed concerns with the USA PATRIOT Act reauthorization conference report regarding civil liberties before voting in favor of the USA PATRIOT improvement and reauthorization Act of 2005 in March 2006 that gained large majority support Clinton strongly supported the 2001 US military action in Afghanistan saying it was a chance to combat terrorism while improving the lives of Afghan women who suffered under the Taliban government Clinton voted in favor of the October 2002 Iraq war resolution which authorized president george w bush to use military force against iraq after the Iraq war began Clinton made trips to Iraq and Afghanistan to visit American troops stationed there on a visit to Iraq in February 2005 Clinton noted that the insurgency had failed to disrupt the democratic elections held earlier in that parts of the country were functioning well observing that war deployments were draining regular and reserve forces she Co introduced legislation to increase the size of the regular US army by 80,000 soldier to ease the strain in late 2005 Clinton said that while immediate withdrawal from Iraq would be a mistake Bush's pledge to stay until the job was done was also misguided as it gave Iraqis an open-ended invitation not to take care of themselves her stance caused frustration among those in the Democratic Party who favored quick withdrawal Clinton supported retaining and improving health benefits for reservists and lobbied against the closure of several military bases especially those in New York she used her position on the Armed Services Committee to forge close relationships with a number of high-ranking military officers by 2014 and 2015 Clinton had fully reversed herself on the Iraq war resolution saying that she got it wrong and the vote in support had been a mistake Clinton voted against President Bush's two major tax cut packages the economic growth and tax relief reconciliation Act of 2001 and the jobs and growth tax relief reconciliation Act of 2003 Clinton voted against the 2005 confirmation of John Roberts as Chief Justice of the United States and the 2006 confirmation of Samuel Alito to the US Supreme Court filibustering the latter in 2005 Clinton called for the Federal Trade Commission to investigate how hidden sex scenes showed up in the controversial video game Grand Theft Auto San Andreas along with senators Joe Lieberman and Evan Bayh she introduced the family entertainment Protection Act intended to protect children from inappropriate content found in video games in 2004 and 2006 Clinton voted against the federal marriage amendment that sought to prohibit same-sex marriage looking to establish a progressive infrastructure to rival that of American conservatism Clinton played a formative role in conversations that led to the 2003 founding of former Clinton administration chief of staff John Podesta Center for American Progress shared aides with Citizens for responsibility and ethics in Washington founded in 2003 and advised the Clinton's former antagonist David Brock's Media Matters for America created in 2004 following the 2004 senate elections she pushed New Democratic Senate Leader Harry Reid to create a Senate war room to handle daily political messaging topic 2006 reelection campaign in November 2004 Clinton announced that she would seek a second Senate term Clinton easily won the Democratic nomination over opposition from anti-war activist jonathan tasini the early frontrunner for the Republican nomination Westchester County District Attorney Jeanine Pirro withdrew from the contest after several months of poor campaign performance Clinton's eventual opponent in the general election was Republican candidate John Spencer a former mayor of Yonkers Clinton won the election on November 7 2006 with 67% of the vote dispensers 31% carrying all but four of New York 62 counties her campaign spent 36 million dollars for her re-election more than any other candidate for Senate in the 2006 elections some Democrats criticized her for spending too much in a one-sided contest while some supporters were concerned she did not leave more funds for a potential presidential bid in 2008 in the following months she transferred ten million dollars of her senate funds toward her presidential campaign topic second term Clinton opposed the Iraq war troop surge of 2007 for both military and domestic political reasons by the following year she was privately acknowledging that the surge had been successful in March of that year she voted in favor of a war spending bill that required President Bush to begin withdrawing troops from Iraq by a deadline it passed almost completely along party lines but was subsequently vetoed by Bush in May a compromised war funding bill that removed withdrawal deadlines but tied funding to progress benchmarks for the Iraqi government passed the Senate by a vote of 80 to 14 and would be signed by Bush Clinton was one of those who voted against it Clinton responded to General David Petraeus September 2007 report to Congress on the situation in Iraq by saying I think that the reports that you provide to us really require a willing suspension of disbelief in March 2007 in response to the dismissal of US attorneys controversy Clinton called on attorney general Alberto Gonzales to resign regarding the high-profile hotly debated immigration reform bill known as the comprehensive immigration reform Act of 2007 Clinton cast several votes in support of the bill which eventually failed to gain cloture as the financial crisis of 2007 Oh 8 reached a peak with the liquidity crisis of September 2008 Clinton supported the proposed bailout of the US financial system voting in favor of the seven hundred billion dollars law that created the troubled asset relief program saying that it represented the interests of the American people it passed the Senate 74 to 25 in 2007 Clinton and Virginia Senator Jim Webb called for an investigation into whether the body armor issued to soldiers in Iraq was adequate topic 2008 presidential campaign Clinton had been preparing for a potential candidacy for US president since at least early 2003 on January 20th 2007 she announced via her website the formation of a presidential exploratory committee for the United States presidential election of 2008 stating I'm in and I'm in to win no woman had ever been nominated by a major party for the presidency and no first lady had ever run for president when Bill Clinton became president in 1993 a blind trust was established in April 2007 the Clintons liquidated the blind trust to avoid the possibility of ethical conflicts or political embarrassments as Hillary undertook her presidential race later disclosure statements revealed that the couple's worth was now upwards of 50 million dollars and that they had earned over 100 million dollars since 2000 with most of it coming from bills books speaking engagements and other activities throughout the first half of 2007 Clinton led candidates competing for the Democratic presidential nomination in opinion polls for the election Senator Barack Obama of Illinois and former Senator John Edwards of North Carolina were her strongest competitors the biggest threat to her campaign was her past support of the Iraq war which Obama had opposed from the beginning Clinton and Obama both set records for early fundraising swapping the money lead each quarter at the end of October Clinton suffered a poor debate performance against Obama Edwards and her other opponents Obama's message of change began to resonate with the Democratic electorate better than Clinton's message of experience in the first vote of 2008 she placed third in the January 3rd Iowa Democratic caucus behind Obama and Edwards Obama gained ground in national polling in the next few days with all polls predicting a victory for him in the New Hampshire primary Clinton gained a surprise win there on January 8th defeating Obama narrowly it was the first time a woman had won a major American party's presidential primary for the purposes of delegates election explanations for Clinton's New Hampshire comeback varied but often centered on her being seen more sympathetically especially by women after her eyes welled with tea and her voice broke while responding to a voter's question the day before the election the nature of the contest fractured in the next few days several remarks by Bill Clinton and other surrogates and a remark by Hillary Clinton concerning martin luther king jr and lyndon b johnson were perceived by many as accidentally or intentionally limiting Obama as a racially oriented candidate or otherwise denying the post racial significance and accomplishments of his campaign despite attempts by both Hillary and Obama to downplay the issue Democratic voting became more polarized as a result with Clinton losing much of her support among african-americans she lost by a two-to-one margin to Obama in the January 26 South Carolina primary setting up with Edwards soon dropping out an intense two-person contest for the 22 february 5th Super Tuesday States Bill Clinton had made more statements attracting criticism for their perceived racial implications late in the South Carolina campaign and his role was seen as damaging enough to her that a wave of supporters within and outside of the campaign said the former president needs to stop the South Carolina campaign had done lasting damage to Hillary Clinton eroding her support among the Democratic establishment and leading to the prized endorsement of Obama by Ted Kennedy on Super Tuesday Clinton won the largest states such as California New York New Jersey and Massachusetts while Obama won more states they almost evenly split the total popular vote but Obama was gaining more pledged delegates for his share of the popular vote due to better exploitation of the Democratic proportional allocation rules the Clinton campaign had counted on winning the nomination by Super Tuesday and was unprepared financially and logistically for a prolonged effort lagging an Internet fundraising as Clinton began loaning money to her campaign there was continuous turmoil within the campaign staff and she made several top-level personnel changes Obama won the next 11 February contests across the country often by large margins and took a significant pledged delegate lead over Clinton on March 4th Clinton broke the string of losses by winning in Ohio among other places where her criticism of NAFTA a major legacy of her husband's presidency helped in a state where the trade agreement was on popular throughout the campaign Obama dominated caucuses for which the Clinton campaign largely ignored preparation Obama did well in primaries where african-americans are younger college-educated or more affluent voters were heavily representing Clinton did well in primaries where Hispanics or older non-college educated or working-class white voters predominated behind in delegates Clinton's best hope of winning the nomination came in persuading uncommitted party appointed super-delegates following the final primaries on June 3rd 2008 Obama had gained enough delegates to become the presumptive nominee in a speech before her supporters on June 7th Clinton ended her campaign and endorsed Obama by campaigns end Clinton had won 1,640 pledged delegates to Obama's 1763 at the time of the clinching Clinton had 286 super-delegates to Obama's 395 with those numbers widening to 256 vs. 438 once Obama was acknowledged the winner Clinton and Obama each received over 17 million votes during the nomination process with both breaking the previous record Clinton was the first woman to run in the primary or caucus of every state and she eclipsed by a very wide margin congresswoman shirley Chisholm 1972 marks for most votes garnered and delegates won by a woman Clinton gave a passionate speech supporting Obama at the 2008 Democratic National Convention and campaigned frequently for him in fall 2008 which concluded with his victory over McCain in the general election on November 4th Clinton's campaign ended up severely in debt she owed millions of dollars to outside vendors and wrote off the thirteen million dollars that she landed herself the debt was eventually paid off by the beginning of 2013 pick Secretary of State 2009 to 2013 topic nomination and Confirmation in mid-november 2008 president-elect Obama and Clinton discussed the possibility of her serving as US Secretary of State in his administration she was initially quite reluctant but on November 20th she told Obama she would accept the position on December 1st president-elect Obama formally announced that Clinton would be his nominee for Secretary of State Clinton said she did not want to leave the Senate but that the new position represented a difficult and exciting adventure as part of the nomination and in order to relieve concerns of conflict of interest Bill Clinton agreed to accept several conditions and restrictions regarding his ongoing activities and fundraising efforts for the William Jay Clinton Foundation and Clinton Global Initiative the appointment required a Saxby fix passed and signed into law in December 2008 confirmation hearings before the Senate Foreign Relations Committee began on January 13 2009 a week before the Obama inauguration two days later the committee voted 16 to 1 to approve Clinton by this time her public approval rating had reached 65% the highest point since the Lewinsky scandal on January 21st 2009 Clinton was confirmed in the full Senate by a vote of 94 to 2 Clinton took the oath of office of Secretary of State resigning from the Senate later that day she became the first former first lady to serve in the United States cabinet topic first half of tenure Clinton spent her initial days as Secretary of State telephoning dozens of world leaders and indicating that US foreign policy would change direction we have a lot of damage to repair she advocated an expanded role in global economic issues for the State Department and cited the need for an increased US diplomatic presence especially in Iraq where the Defense Department had conducted diplomatic missions Clinton announced the most ambitious of her departmental reforms the quadrennial diplomacy and development review which establishes specific objectives for the State Department's diplomatic missions abroad it was modeled after a similar process in the Defense Department that she was familiar with from her time on the Senate Armed Services Committee the first such review was issued in late 2010 and called for the u.s. leading through civilian power as a cost-effective way of responding to international challenges and diffusing crises it also sought to institutionalize goals of empowering women throughout the world a cause Clinton advocated throughout her tenure was the adoption of cook stoves in the developing world to foster cleaner and more environmentally sound food preparation and reduce smoke dangers to women in an internal debate regarding the war in Afghanistan during 2009 Clinton sided with the military's recommendations for a maximal Afghanistan surge recommending 40,000 troops and no public deadline for withdrawal she prevailed over Vice President Joe Biden's opposition but eventually supported Obama's compromise plan to send an additional 30,000 troops and tie the surge to a timetable for eventual withdrawal in March 2009 Clinton presented Russian Foreign Minister Sergei Lavrov with a reset button symbolizing u.s. attempts to rebuild ties with that country under its new President Dmitry Medvedev the photo-op was remembered for a mistranslation into Russian the policy which became known as the Russian reset led to improved cooperation in several areas during Medvedev's time in office but relations would worsen considerably following Vladimir Putin's return to the position in 2012 in October 2009 on a trip to Switzerland Clinton's intervention overcame last-minute snags and saved the signing of an historic turkey sharmini an accord that established diplomatic relations and opened the border between the two long hostile nations in Pakistan she engaged in several unusually blunt discussions with students talk-show hosts and tribal elders in an attempt to repair the Pakistani image of the u.s. beginning in 2010 she helped organize a diplomatic isolation and international sanctions regime against Iran in an effort to force curtailment of that country's nuclear program this would eventually lead to the multinational joint comprehensive plan of action being agreed to in 2015 Clinton and Obama forged a good working relationship without power struggles she was a team player within the administration and a defender of it to the outside and was careful that neither she nor her husband would upstage the President Clinton formed an alliance with Secretary of Defense gates as they shared similar strategic outlooks Obama and Clinton both approached foreign policy as a largely non-ideological pragmatic exercise she met with him weekly but did not have the close daily relationship that some of her predecessors had had with their presidents moreover certain key areas of policymaking were kept inside the White House or Pentagon nevertheless the President had trust in her actions in a prepared speech in January 2010 Clinton drew analogies between the Iron Curtain and the free and unfree internet Chinese officials reacted negatively towards it and the speech garnered attention as the first time a senior American official had clearly defined the Internet as a key element of American foreign policy in July 2010 she visited Korea Vietnam Pakistan and Afghanistan all the while preparing for the July 31st wedding of daughter Chelsea amid much media attention topic second half of tenure the 2011 Egyptian protests posed the most challenging foreign policy crisis for the administration yet Clinton's public response quickly evolved from an early assessment that the government of Hosni Mubarak was stable to a stance that there needed to be an orderly transition to a democratic participatory government to a condemnation of violence against the protesters Obama came to rely upon Clinton's advice organization and personal connections in the behind the scenes response to developments as Arab Spring protests spread throughout the region Clinton was at the forefront of a US response that she recognized was sometimes contradictory backing some regimes while supporting protesters against others as the Libyan Civil War took place Clinton's shift in favor of military intervention aligned her with ambassador to the UN Susan Rice and National Security Council figures Samantha power and was a key turning point in overcoming internal administration opposition from defense secretary gates security adviser thomas e Donilon and counterterrorism advisor John Brennan in gaining the backing for an Arab and UN approval of the 2011 military intervention in Libya Secretary Clinton testified to Congress that the administration did not need congressional authorization for its military intervention in Libya despite objections from some members of both parties that the administration was violating the War Powers Resolution and the State Department's legal adviser argued the same when the resolution 60-day limit for unauthorized Wars was passed a view that prevailed in a legal debate within the Obama administration Clinton later used US allies in what she called convening power to promote unity among the Libyan rebels as they eventually overthrew the Gaddafi regime the aftermath of the Libyan Civil War saw the country becoming a failed state and the wisdom of the intervention and interpretation of what happened afterward would become the subject of considerable debate during April 2011 internal deliberations of the president's innermost circle of advisers over whether to order US special forces to conduct a raid into Pakistan against Osama bin Laden Clinton was among those who argued in favor saying the importance of getting bin Laden outweighed the risks to the u.s. relationship with PAC following completion of the mission on May 2nd which resulted in bin Laden's death Clinton played a key role in the administration's decision not to release photographs of the dead al-qaeda leader during internal discussions regarding Iraq in 2011 Clinton argued for keeping a residual force of up to 10,000 to 20,000 US troops there all ended up being withdrawn after negotiations for a revised US Iraq Status of Forces Agreement failed in a speech before the United Nations Human Rights Council in December 2011 Clinton said that gay rights are human rights and that the US would advocate for gay rights and legal protections of days abroad the same period saw her overcome internal administration opposition with a direct appeal to Obama and staged the first visit to Burma by a US Secretary of State since 1955 as she met with Burmese leaders as well as opposition leader Aung San Suu Kyi's democratic reforms she also said that the 21st century would be America's Pacific century a declaration that was part of the Obama administration's pivot to Asia during the Syrian civil war Clinton and the Obama administration initially sought to persuade Syrian President Bashar al-assad to engage popular demonstrations with reform then as government violence allegedly rose in August 2011 called for him to resign from the presidency the administration joined several countries in delivering non-lethal assistance to so-called rebels opposed to the Assad government and humanitarian groups working in Syria during mid 201 – Clinton formed a plan with CIA director David Petraeus to further strengthen the opposition by arming and training vetted groups of Syrian rebels but the proposal was rejected by the White House officials who were reluctant to become entangled in the conflict and who feared that extremists hidden among the rebels might turn the weapons against other targets in December 2012 Clinton was hospitalized for a few days for treatment of a blood clot in her right transverse venous sinus her doctors had discovered the clot during a follow-up examination for a concussion she had sustained when she fainted and fell nearly three weeks earlier as a result of severe dehydration from a viral Almond acquired during a trip to europe the clot which caused no immediate neurological injury was treated with anticoagulant and her doctors have said she has made a full recovery topic overall themes you throughout her time in office and in her final speech concluding it Clinton viewed smart power as the strategy for asserting us leadership and values in a world of varied threats weaken central governments and increasingly important non-governmental entities by combining military hard power with diplomacy and u.s. soft power capacities in global economics development aid technology creativity and human rights advocacy as such she became the first Secretary of State to methodically implement the smart power approach in debates over use of military force she was generally one of the more hawkish voices in the administration in August 2011 she held the ongoing multinational military intervention in Libya and the initial US response towards the Syrian civil war as examples of smart power in action Clinton greatly expanded the State Department's use of social media including Facebook and Twitter both to get its message out and to help empower citizens of foreign countries vissa vez their governments and in the Mideast turmoil Clinton particularly saw an opportunity to advance one of the central themes of her tenure the empowerment and welfare of women and girls worldwide moreover in a formulation that became known as the Hillary Doctrine she viewed women's rights as critical for u.s. security interests due to a link between the level of violence against women and gender inequality within a state and the instability and challenge to international security of that state in turn there was a trend of women around the world finding more opportunities and in some cases feeling safer as the result of her actions and visibility Clinton visited 112 countries during her tenure making her the most widely traveled Secretary of State Time magazine wrote that Clinton's endurance as legendary the first Secretary of State to visit countries such as Togo and East Timor she believed that in-person visits were more important than ever in the virtual age as early as March 2011 she indicated she was not interested in serving a second term as Secretary of State should Obama be reelected in 2012 in December 2012 following that reelection Obama nominated Senator John Kerry to be Clinton's successor last day as Secretary of State was February 1st 2013 upon her departure analysts commented that Clinton's tenure did not bring any signature diplomatic breakthroughs as some other secretaries of state had and highlighted her focus on goals that she thought were less tangible but would have more lasting effect topic Benghazi attack and subsequent hearings on September 11 2012 the US diplomatic mission in Benghazi Libya was attacked resulting in the deaths of the US ambassador J Christopher Stevens and three other Americans the attack questions surrounding the security of the US consulate and the varying explanations given afterward by administration officials for what had happened became politically controversial in the US on October 15th Clinton took responsibility for the question of security lapses and said the differing explanations were due to the inevitable fog of war confusion after such events on December 19th a panel led by Thomas R Pickering and Michael Mullen issued its report on the matter it was sharply critical of State Department officials in Washington for ignoring requests for more guards and safety upgrades and for failing to adapt security procedures to a deteriorating security environment it focused its criticism on the Department's Bureau of Diplomatic Security and Bureau Near Eastern affairs for State Department officials at the assistant secretary level and below were removed from their posts as a consequence Clinton said she accepted the conclusions of the report and that changes were underway to implemented suggested recommendations Clinton gave testimony to to congressional Foreign Affairs committees on January 23rd 2013 regarding the Benghazi attack she defended her actions in response to the incident and while still accepting formal responsibility said she had had no direct role in specific discussions beforehand regarding consulate security congressional Republicans challenged her on several points to which she responded in particular after persistent questioning about whether or not the administration had issued an accurate talking points after the attack Clinton responded with the much quoted rejoinder with all due respect the fact as we had four Dead Americans was it because of a protest or was it because of guys out for a walk one night who decided that they'd a go kill some Americans what difference at this point does it make it is our job to figure out what happened and do everything we can to prevent it from ever happening again senator in November 2014 the House Intelligence Committee issued a report that concluded there had been no wrongdoing in the administration's response to the attack the House Select Committee on Benghazi was created in May 2014 and conducted a two-year investigation related to the 2012 attack its actions were often seen through the prism of domestic politics this was especially the case in September 2015 when House Majority Leader Kevin McCarthy credited the Benghazi hearings with lowering Clinton's poll numbers thereby contradicting the Republicans previous talking points on the investigation on October 22nd 2015 Clinton testified at an all-day and nighttime session before the committee the hearing included many heated exchanges between committee members and Clinton and among the committee members themselves Clinton was widely seen as emerging largely unscathed from the hearing because of what the media perceived as a calm and unfazed demeanor and a lengthy meandering repetitive line of questioning from the committee the committee issued competing final reports in June 2016 that broke along partisan lines with the Republican report offering some new details about the attack but no new evidence of culpability by Clinton topic email controversy a controversy arose in March 2015 when the State Department's inspector general revealed that Clinton had exclusively used personal email accounts on a non-government privately maintained server instead of email accounts maintained on federal government servers when conducting official business during her tenure as Secretary of State some experts officials members of Congress and political opponents contended that her use of private messaging system software and a private server violated State Department protocols and procedures and federal laws and regulations governing record-keeping requirements the controversy occurred against the backdrop of Clinton's 2016 presidential election campaign and hearings held by the House Select Committee on Benghazi in a joint statement released on July 15th 2015 the Inspector General of the State Department and the Inspector General of the intelligence community said that their review of the emails found information that was classified when sent remains so at the time of their inspection never should have been transmitted via and in classified personal system they also stated unequivocally that this classified information should never have been stored outside of secure government computer systems Clinton had said over a period of months that she kept no classified information on the private server that she set up in her house government policy reiterated in the non-disclosure agreement signed by Clinton as part of gaining her security clearance is that sensitive information can be considered as classified even if not marked as such after allegations were raised that some of the emails in question fell into the so-called Bourne classified category an FBI probe was initiated regarding how classified information was handled on the Clinton server the New York Times reported in February 2016 that nearly two thousand one hundred emails stored on Clinton's server were retroactively Lee marked classified by the State Department additionally the intelligence community's Inspector General wrote Congress to say that some of the emails contained classified State Department information when originated in May 2016 the Inspector General of the State Department criticized her use of a private email server while Secretary of State stating that she had not requests did permission for this and would not have received it if she had asked Clinton maintained that she did not send or receive any emails from her personal server that were confidential at the time they were sent in a democratic debate with Bernie Sanders on February 4th 2016 Clinton said I never sent or received any classified material they are retro actively classifying it on July 2nd 2016 Clinton stated let me repeat what I have repeated for many months now I never received nor sent any material that was marked classified on July 5th 2016 the FBI concluded its investigation in a statement FBI director James Comey said 110 emails in 52 email chains have been determined by the owning agency to contain classified information at the time they were sent or received eight of those chains contained information that was top-secret at the time they were sent 36 chains contained secret information at the time and it contained confidential information which is the lowest level of classification separate from those about 2,000 additional emails were up classified to make them confidential the information in those had not been classified at the time the emails were sent three emails out of 30,000 were found to be marked as classified although they lacked classified headers and were only marked with a small C in parentheses described as portion markings by Comey he also said it was possible Clinton was not technically sophisticated enough to understand what the three classified markings meant the probe found that Clinton used her personal email extensively while outside the United States both sending and receiving work-related emails in the territory of sophisticated adversaries the FBI assessed that it is possible that hostile actors gained access to secretary Clinton's personal email account quote Comey stated that although Clinton or her colleagues were extremely careless in their handling of very sensitive highly classified information the FBI would recommend to the Justice Department that no charges are appropriate in this case on July 6 2016 US Attorney General Loretta Lynch confirmed that the probe into Clinton's you of private email servers while Secretary of State will be closed without criminal charges on October 28 2016 Comey notified Congress that the FBI started looking into newly discovered emails law enforcement officials stated while investigating allegedly elicit text messages from Anthony Weiner husband of Clinton aide Huma Abedin to a 15 year old girl in North Carolina they discovered emails related to Clinton's private server on a laptop computer belonging to Weiner on November 6th Comey notified Congress that the FBI had not changed its conclusion reached in July the notification was later cited by Clinton as a factor in her loss in the 2016 presidential election on January 4th 2018 The Daily Beast reported that Justice Department officials were again looking into Clinton's use of a private email server The Daily Beast citing a former senior DOJ official familiar with Department leadership stinking reported that Justice Department officials were acutely aware of demands from President Donald Trump to investigate Clinton topic Clinton Foundation and speeches when Clinton left the State Department she returned to private life for the first time in 30 years she and her daughter joined her husband as named members of the bill Hillary and Chelsea Clinton foundation in 2013 there she focused on early childhood development efforts including an initiative called too small to fail and a six hundred million dollars initiative to encourage the enrollment of girls in secondary schools worldwide led by former Australian Prime Minister Julia Gillard Clinton also led the no ceilings the full participation project a partnership with the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation to gather and study data on the progress of women and girls around the world since the Beijing conference in 1995 its March 2015 report said that while there has never been a better time in history to be born a woman this data shows just how far we still have to go the foundation began accepting new donations from foreign governments which it had stopped doing while she was secretary however even though the Clinton Foundation had stopped taking donations from foreign governments they continued to take large donations from foreign citizens who are sometimes linked to their governments she began work on another volume of memoirs and made appearances on the paid speaking circuit there she received $200,000 – 225,000 per engagement often appearing before Wall Street firms or at business conventions she also made some unpaid speeches on behalf of the foundation for the 15 months ending in March 2015 Clinton earned over eleven million dollars from her speeches for the overall period 2007 to 14 the Clintons earned almost 141 million dollars paid some fifty six million dollars in federal and state taxes and donated about fifteen million dollars to charity as of 2015 she was estimated to be worth over thirty million dollars on her own or $45 – 53 million with her husband Clinton resigned from the foundation's board in April 2015 when she began her presidential campaign and the foundation said it would accept new foreign governmental donations from six Western nations only topic 2016 presidential campaign on April 12 2015 Clinton formally announced her candidacy for the presidency in the 2016 election she had a campaign in Waiting already in place including a large donor Network experienced operatives and the ready for Hillary in Priorities USA Action political action committees and other infrastructure the campaign's headquarters were established in the New York City borough of Brooklyn focuses of her campaign included raising middle-class incomes establishing universal preschool and making college more affordable and improving the affordable care act initially considered a prohibitive favorite to win the Democratic nomination Clinton faced an unexpectedly strong challenge from Democratic Socialist senator Bernie Sanders of Vermont whose longtime stance against the influence of corporations and the wealthy in American politics resonated with a dissatisfied citizenry troubled by the effects of income inequality in the u.s. and contrasted with Clinton's Wall Street ties in the initial contest of the primary season Clinton only very narrowly won the Iowa Democratic caucuses held February 1st over an increasingly popular Sanders making her the first woman to win the Iowa caucuses in the first primary held in New Hampshire on February 9th she lost to Sanders by a wide margin Sanders was an increasing threat in the next contest the Nevada caucuses on February 20th but Clinton managed a five percentage point win aided by final days campaigning among casino workers Clinton followed that with a lopsided victory in the South Carolina primary on February 27 these two victories stabilized her campaign and showed an avoidance of the management turmoil that harmed her 2008 effort on March 1st Super Tuesday Clinton won seven of 11 contests including a string of dominating victories across the south buoyed as in South Carolina by african-american voters and opened up a significant lead and pledged delegates over Sanders she maintained this delegate lead across subsequent contests during the primary season with a consistent pattern throughout Sanders did better among younger whiter more rural and more liberal voters and in states that held caucuses or where eligibility was open to independence while Clinton did better among older and more black and Hispanic voter populations and in states that held primaries or where eligibility was restricted to registered Democrats by June 5th 2016 she had earned enough pledged delegates in support of super-delegates for the media to consider her the presumptive nominee on June 7th after winning most of the states in the final major round of primaries Clinton held a victory rally in Brooklyn in which she became the first woman to claim the status of presumptive nominee for a major American political party by campaigns end Clinton had won 2219 pledged delegates to Sanders 1832 with an estimated 594 super-delegates compared to Sanders 47 she received almost 17 million votes during the nominating process as opposed to Sanders 13 million Clinton was formally nominated at the 2016 Democratic National Convention in Philadelphia on July 26 2016 becoming the first woman to be nominated for president by a major u.s. political party her choice of vice-presidential running mate senator Tim Kaine was nominated by the convention the following day her opponents in the general election included Republican Donald Trump libertarian Gary Johnson and Jill Stein of the Green Party around the time of the convention WikiLeaks released emails suggested the DNC and Clinton campaign tilted the primary in Clinton's favor Clinton held a significant lead in national polls over Trump throughout most of 2016 in early July Trump and Clinton became tied in major polls following the FBI's conclusion of its investigation into her emails FBI director James Comey concluded Clinton had been extremely careless in her handling of classified government material in late July Trump gained his first lead over Clinton in major polls following a three to four percentage point convention bounce at the Republican National Convention in line with the average bouncing conventions since 2004 although it is toward the small side by historical standards following Clinton's seven percentage point convention bounce at the Democratic National Convention she regained a significant lead in national polls at the start of August Clinton was defeated by Donald Trump in the November 8 2016 presidential election by the early morning hours of November 9th Trump had received 279 projected electoral college votes with 270 needed to win and media sources proclaimed him the winner Clinton then phoned Trump to concede and to congratulate him on his victory whereupon Trump gave a victory speech the next morning Clinton made a public concession speech in which she acknowledged the pain of her loss but called on her supporters to accept Trump as president saying we owe him an open mind and a chance to lead though Clinton lost the election by only capturing 232 electors to Trump's 306 she won the popular vote by more than 2.7 million votes or 2.1 percent of the voter base she is the fifth presidential candidate in US history to win the popular vote but lose the election she won the most votes of any candidate who did not take office and the third most votes of any candidate in history though she did not have the greatest percentage win of a losing candidate Andrew Jackson won the popular vote by ten point four percent but lost to John Quincy Adams on December 19th 2016 when electors formally voted Clinton lost five of her initial 232 votes due to faithless electors with three of her Washington votes instead being cast for Colin Powell when being cast for faith spotted eagle and in Hawaii being cast for Bernie Sanders topic post 201 six election activities in their respective capacities as a former president and a former first lady Bill and Hillary Clinton attended the inauguration of Donald Trump with their daughter Chelsea the morning of the inauguration Clinton wrote on her Twitter account I'm here today to honor our democracy and its enduring values I will never stop believing in our country and its future on March 17th 2017 Clinton delivered a st. Patrick's Day speech in Scranton Pennsylvania making reference to reports of her being seen taking walks in the woods around Chappaqua following her loss in the presidential election Clinton indicated her readiness to emerge from the woods and become politically active again in April 2017 Clinton commented that she will not seek public office again future comments by Clinton have led some to cast doubt on this statement in May 2017 Clinton announced the formation of onward together a new political action committee that she wrote is being dedicated to advancing the progressive vision that earned nearly 66 million votes in the last election in a June 2017 appearance at a Baltimore fundraiser for the Elijah Cummings youth program in Israel ecy P Clinton condemned the 2017 Portland train attack when violence motivated by hatred from Portland Oregon to College Park ends the lives of young Americans this programs mission of spreading tolerance is more urgent than ever On June 14th after the Congressional baseball shooting Clinton tweeted two sides take the field tomorrow that we're all ultimately on one team my thoughts are with the members of Congress staff and heroic police in October 2018 Hillary and Bill Clinton announced plans to go on a 13 City speaking tour in various cities in the United States and Canada between November 2018 and May 20 19 on October 10th 2018 Hillary was awarded an honorary doctorate in law lld at Queen's University Belfast after giving a speech regarding Northern Ireland and the impacts of brexit at wit Lahaul Belfast a package that contained a pipe bomb was sent to Clinton's home in Washington DC on October 24th 2018 the package was intercepted by the Secret Service similar packages were sent to several other Democrat leaders into CNN topic comments on President Trump on February 27th 2017 Clinton called on President Trump to address the shooting of two Indian men by Adam Purinton on April 6th in response to the Khan shake and chemical attack Clinton said the US should take out the air fields of Bashar al-assad and thereby prevent him from being able to use them to bomb innocent people and drop sarin gas on them on May 2nd Clinton said Trump's use of Twitter doesn't work when pursuing important negotiations and North Korea should not be consulted with an abandoning of a broader strategic framework to try to get China Japan Russia South Korea to put the kind of pressure on the regime that will finally bring them to the negotiating table with some kind of realistic prospect for change while delivering the commencement speech at her alma mater Wellesley College on May 26 Clinton asserted president Trump's 2018 budget proposal was a con for underfunding domestic programs On June 1st when President Trump announced withdrawal of the u.s. from the Paris agreement Clinton tweeted that it was a historic mistake on March 24th 2017 after the postponing of a Congressional vote to repeal the Affordable Care Act Clinton labeled the day a victory for the 24 million people at risk of losing their health insurance and warned of an ongoing battle to maintain coverage Clinton went on to call the american health care act a disastrous bill during a san francisco speech four days later on May 4th after the house narrowly passed the American Health Care Act Clinton dubbed it a shameful failure of policy and morality by GOP on June 23rd the day after Senate Republicans revealed a draft of their health care reform legislation Clinton tweeted this is a critical moment about choosing people over politics speak out against this bill topic political positions several organizations have attempted to measure Clinton's place on the political spectrum scientifically using her Senate votes national Journal's 2004 study of roll call votes assigned Clinton a rating of 30 in the political spectrum relative to the Senate at the time with a rating of one being most liberal and 100 being most conservative national Journal's subsequent rankings placed her as the 32nd most liberal senator in 2006 and 16th most senator in 2007 a 2004 analysis by political scientists Joshua D Clinton of Princeton University and Simon Jackman and Doug rivers of Stanford University found her to be likely the sixth to eighth most liberal senator the Almanac of American politics edited by Michael Barone and Richard E Cohen rated her votes from 2003 through 2006 as liberal or conservative with 100 as the highest rating in three areas economic social and foreign averaged for the four years the ratings are economic topics seventy-five liberal 23 conservative social 83 liberal 6 conservative foreign topic 66 liberal 30 conservative total average 75 liberal 20 conservative according to 538 s measure of political ideology Clinton was one of the most liberal members during her time in the Senate organizations have also attempted to give newer assessments of Clinton when she reenters elective politics in 2015 based on her stated positions from the 1990s to the present on the issues places her in their left liberal region on their two-dimensional grid of social and economic ideologies with a social score of 80 on a scale of 0 more restrictive to 100 less government stances in an economic score of 10 on a scale of 0 more restrictive to 100 less government stances crowd pact which does a data aggregation of campaign contributions votes and speeches gives her a 6.5 L rating on a one-dimensional left/right scale from 10 L most liberal to 10 C most conservative through 2008 she had an average lifetime 90% liberal quotient from Americans for democratic action and a lifetime 8 percent rating from the American Conservative Union in March 2016 Clinton laid out a detailed economic plan which the New York Times called optimistic and wide-ranging basing her economic philosophy on inclusive capitalism Clinton proposed a clawback that would rescind tax relief and other benefits for companies that move jobs overseas providing incentives for companies that share profits with employees communities in the environment rather than focusing on short-term to increase stock value and rewarding shareholders increasing collective bargaining rights and placing an exit tax on companies that move their headquarters out of America in order to pay a lower tax rate overseas Clinton currently opposes the trans-pacific partnership TPP though she previously described it as the gold standard of trade deals she supports the u.s. export-import bank and holds that any trade deal has to produce jobs and raise wages and increase prosperity and protect our security as Senator 2001 to 2009 her record on trade was mixed voting in favor of some trade agreements but not others given the climate of unlimited campaign contributions following the Supreme Court Citizens United decision Clinton called for a constitutional amendment to limit unaccountable money in politics in July 2016 she committed to introducing a u.s. constitutional amendment that would result in overturning the 2010 Citizens United decision on December 7th 2015 in the New York Times Clinton presented her detailed plans for regulating Wall Street financial activities Clinton accepted the scientific consensus on climate change supports cap and trade and opposed the Keystone XL pipeline she supported equal pay for equal work to address current shortfalls in how much women are paid to do the same jobs men do Clinton has explicitly focused on family issues and supports universal preschool these programs would be funded by proposing tax increases on the wealthy including a fair share surcharge Clinton supported the affordable care act and would have added a public option that would have competed against private insurers and enabled people 50 or 55 and up to buy into Medicare on LGBT rights she supported the right to same-sex marriage Clinton first expressed support for a national right to same-sex marriage in 2013 in 2000 she had been against such unions altogether and in 2006 she said only that she would support a state's decision to permit same-sex marriages in 2000 she was the first first lady to march in an LGBT Pride Parade in 2016 she was the first major Party presidential candidate ever to write an op-ed for an LGBT newspaper Philadelphia gay news Clinton held that allowing undocumented immigrants to have the path to citizenship I s at its heart a family issue an expressed support for Obama's deferred action for parental accountability DAPA program which would allow up to five million undocumented immigrants to gain deferral of deportation and authorization to legally work in the United States she opposed and criticized Trump's call to temporarily ban Muslims from entering the United States however in 2014 Clinton opposed daca Clinton expressed support for common core she said the really unfortunate argument that's been going on around common core it's very painful because the common core started off as a bipartisan effort it was actually nonpartisan it wasn't politicized Iowa has had a testing system based on a core curriculum for a really long time and speaking to Iowans you see the value of it you understand why that helps you organize your whole education system and a lot of states unfortunately haven't had that and so don't understand the value of a core in this sense a Common Core on foreign affairs Clinton voted in October 2002 in favor of the authorization for use of military force against Iraq a vote she later regretted she favored arming Syria's rebel fighters in 2012 and has called for the removal of Syrian President Bashar al-assad she supported the NATO bombing of Yugoslavia in 1999 and the nato-led military intervention in Libya to oust former Libyan leader Muammar Gaddafi in 2011 Clinton is in favor of maintaining American influence in the Middle East she has told the American Israel Public Affairs Committee America can't ever be neutral when it comes to Israel's security and survival Clinton expressed support for Israel's right to defend itself during the 2006 Lebanon War and 2014 Israel Gaza conflict in April 2017 Clinton called for strikes against Syrian airfields in 2000 Clinton advocated for the elimination of the Electoral College she promised to co-sponsor legislation that would abolish it thereby resulting in the direct election of the President pick religious views Clinton has been a lifelong Methodist attending various churches throughout her lifetime all belonging to the United Methodist Church First United Methodist Church of Park Ridge Illinois in her early life first United Methodist Church of Little Rock Arkansas while in Arkansas foundry United Methodist Church in Washington DC as First Lady of the United States Metropolitan Community United Methodist Church in New York New York currently a congregant she discussed her faith at 2014 United Methodist Women church rally at the Kentucky International Convention Center in Louisville Kentucky however she has infrequently discussed her faith while campaigning Clinton has openly discussed her Christianity on several occasions discussing for example the importance of loving one's neighbor as oneself of helping the poor in creating opportunities for others to be lifted up Clinton has also expressed disappointment that Christianity which has such great love at its core is sometimes used to condemn so quickly and judge so harshly professor Paul Kanger author of God and Hillary Clinton a spiritual life has suggested that Clinton's political positions are rooted in her faith Clinton often expresses a certain Maxim which is often attributed to John Wesley do all the good you can by all the means you can in all the ways you can in fact Clinton repeated this saying in her acceptance speech at the 2016 Democratic National Convention adding that her mother Dorothy made sure I learned these words from our methodist faith topic writings and recordings as First Lady of the United States Clinton published a weekly syndicated newspaper column titled talking it over from 1995 to 2000 it focused on her experiences and those of women children and families she met during her travels around the world in 1996 Clinton presented a vision for the children of America in the book it takes a village and other lessons children teach us the book made the bestseller list of the New York Times in Clinton received the Grammy Award for Best spoken word album in 1997 for the books audio recording she was the first first lady to win a Grammy Award other books published by Clinton when she was first lady include dear socks dear buddy kids letters to the first pets 1998 and an invitation to the White House at home with history 2000 in 2001 she wrote an afterword to the children's book Beatrice's goat in 2003 Clinton released a 562 page autobiography living history for which publisher Simon & Schuster paid Clinton a near-record advance of 8 million dollars the book set a first week sales record for a nonfiction work went on to sell more than 1 million copies in the first month following publication and was translated into twelve foreign languages Clinton's audio recording of the book earned her a nomination for the Grammy Award for Best spoken word album in 2014 Clinton published a second memoir hard choices which focused on her time as Secretary of State as of July 2015 the book has sold about 280,000 copies in 2016 Clinton and Tim Kaine published stronger together which outlined their vision for the United States if they had won the 2016 presidential election Clinton authored her third memoir what happened about the 2016 election which was released on September 12th 2017 by Simon & Schuster in print ebook and audio read by the author a book tour and series of interviews and personal appearances were arranged for the launch topic cultural and political image over a hundred books and scholarly works have been written about Clinton from many perspectives a 2006 survey by the New York Observer found a virtual cottage industry of Andy Clinton literature put out by Regnery publishing and other conservative imprints with titles such as madam Hillary the dark road to the White House Hillary scheme inside the next Clinton's ruthless agenda to take the White House and can she be stopped Hillary Clinton will be the next president of the United States unless books praising Clinton did not sell nearly as well other than the memoirs written by her and her husband when she ran for Senate in 2000 a number of fundraising groups such as save our Senate and the emergency committee to stop Hillary Rodham Clinton sprang up to oppose her van natta found that Republican and conservative groups viewed her as a reliable boogeyman to mention in fundraising letters on a par with Ted Kennedy in the and of democratic and liberal appeals mentioning Newt Gingrich Clinton has also been featured in the media and popular culture from a wide spectrum of varying perspectives in 1995 writer Todd s Purdum of the New York Times characterized Clinton as a Rorschach test an assessment echoed at the time by feminist writer and activist betty Friedan who said coverage of Hillary Clinton as a massive Rorschach test of the evolution of women in our society she has been the subject of many satirical impressions on Saturday Night Live beginning with her time as first lady and has made guest appearances on the show herself in 2008 and in 2015 to face off with her doppelgangers Jonathan Mann wrote songs about her including but not limited to the Hillary shimmy song which went viral Clinton has often been described in the popular media as a polarizing figure with some arguing otherwise going into the early stages of her presidential campaign for 2008 a Time magazine cover showed a large picture of her with two check boxes labeled love her hate her while mother jones titled its profile of her harpy hero parra dick hillary following Clinton's choked up moment and related incidents in the run-up to the January 2008 New Hampshire primary both the New York Times in Newsweek found that discussion of genders role in the campaign had moved into the national political discourse Newsweek editor Jon Meacham summed the relationship between Clinton and the American public by saying that the New Hampshire events brought an odd truth to light though Hillary Rodham Clinton has been on the periphery or in the middle of national life for decades she is one of the most recognizable but least understood figures in American politics once she became Secretary of State Clinton's image seemed to improve dramatically among the American public and become one of a respected world figure her favorability ratings dropped however after she left office and began to be viewed in the context of partisan politics once more by September 2015 with her 2016 presidential campaign underway and beset by continued reports regarding her private email usage at the State Department her ratings had slumped to some of her lowest levels ever during 2016 she acknowledged that I'm not a natural politician in case you haven't noticed topic electoral history topic C also United States presidential election 2016 timeline list of female United States cabinet secretaries women in the United States Senate topic notes topic references topic bibliography topic external links official Hillary for America campaign website former Secretary of State Hillary Rodham Clinton 2009 to 2013 at state.gov White House biography of former First Lady Hillary Rodham Clinton United States Congress Hillary Clinton did CEO Oh 104 one biographical directory of the United States Congress organizations Clinton Foundation media coverage Hillary Rodham Clinton collected news and commentary the New York Times appearances on c-span other Hillary Rodham Clinton at curly Patrick Jeannette Hillary Rodham Clinton National Women's History Museum 2016

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