Daylight Saving Time Explained



في كل عام، تقدم بعض الدول ساعاتها في الربيع، فقط لإرجاعها مرة أخرى في الخريف.
بالنسبة لمعظم دول العالم التي لا تشارك في هذا التلاعب الغريب في الساعات – يبدو هذا التلاعب غريبا. إذا ما هو السبب وراءه؟
الفكرة الرئيسة، التي اقترحها (جورج هدسون) كانت إعطاء الناس المزيد من ضوء الشمس أثناء الصيف.
بالتأكيد، من المهم ملاحظة أن تغيير الساعة لا يصنع المزيد من ضوء الشمس
– ما هكذا تعمل الفيزياء. لكن مع تقديم الساعات لمدة ساعة واحدة،
وبالنسبة لجميع الأنشطة الإنسانية الأخرى، ستبدو الشمس وكأنها تشرق وتغرب متأخرة.
الوقت الذي تقدم فيه الساعات يسمى بالتوقيت الصيفي، ويطلق على بقية السنة التوقيت الاعتيادي. هذا التغيير يعطي الناس المزيد من الوقت للاستمتاع بضوء الشمس ومتعة جو الصيف بعد وقت العمل. هدسون بالذات أراد المزيد من ضوء الشمس ليقضي الوقت في زيادة مجموعته من الحشرات.
عندما يقترب الشتاء تعاد الساعات إلى الوراء على فرض أن الناس لن يرغبوا بقضاء الكثير من الوقت في الخارج. لكن الشتاء لا يؤثر على جميع الناس بهذه الصورة. إذا كنت تعيش في منطقة استوائية كهاوايي،
لست بحاجة للقلق حيال فصول السنة لأنها -إجمالا- لا تحدث.
كل يوم، طوال السنة، هو يوم جميل ساطع فعيد الكريسمس مثلا سيكون يوما جميل للذهاب للشاطئ كسائر الأيام. لذلك ، هاوايي هي Yp]n ولايتين تهملان التوقيت الصيفي. لكنك كلما ابتعدت عن خخط الاستواء – في أية جهة- ، كلما زادت وطأة فصول السنة فيكون الشتاء أكثرة برودة وظلاما،
فيصبح وقت الصيف ذا قيمة كبيرة لسكان تلك المنطقة. لذلك ليس من المستغرب أنه كلما بعدت الدولة عن خط الاستواء كلما زاد استعمالها للتوقيت الصيفي.
اقترح هدسون فكرته في (ويلينجتون) في ١٨٩٥م لكنها لم تلاق قبولا،
واستغرب الأمر حتى ١٩١٦ حين أصبحت ألمانيا أول دولة تعمل بالتوقيت الصيفي. ومع أن الألمان أهل الصناعة كانوا أقل تحمسا لصيد الفراشات في مساء صيفي جميل من حماستهم لتوفير الفحم لآلتهم العسكرية.
ظن الألمان أن التوقيت الصيفي سوف يوفر الطاقة. والتفسير أن هذا سيشجع الناس على البقاء في الخارج لمدة أطول أثناء أثناء الصيف، وبذلك يقل استخدام الإنارة الصناعية.
يبدو الأمر منطقيا وقابلا للنجاح آنذاك في المجتمع المنظم في القرن الماضي، لكن هل ثمة فائدة في العصر الحديث؟ مما يثير الدهشة، هذا تساؤل تصعب الإجابة علي. على سبيل المثال، تأمل أعظم اختراعات الإنسان: تكييف الهواء. الصندوق السحري الذي له أن يجعل الأماكن غير المأهولة من عالمنا مناطق يحتمل العيش فيها.
لكن طرد الحرارة من منزلك ليس بالأمر الزهيد، فتشغيل مكيف واحد يعادل تشغيل اثني عشر لمبة (تنجستن). إذا حصل الناس على المزيد من ضوء الشمس، لكنهم لم يستغلوه لقضاء الوقت خارجا، فالتوقيت الصيفي سيبذر الكهرباء بدلا من توفيرها. خصوصا في منطقة كـ (فينكس) حيث متوسطة الحرارة العظمى ١٠٧ وأعلى درجة مسجلة هي ١٢٢، أثناء فصل الصيف. إذا اقترحت على أحد سكان (أريزونا) تقديم ساعاتهم للحصول على المزيد من سطوع الشمس، فسيسخر منك. المزيد من الشمس وزيادة في فواتير الكهرباء هي آخر ما يريده! وهذا يفسر كون أريزونا هي الولاية الثانية التي لا تغير ساعاتها. Another problem when trying to study daylight
saving time is rapid changes in technology and electrical use.
And as technology gets better and better and better more electricity is dedicated to things
that aren’t light bulbs. And the lure of a hot, sweaty, mosquito-filled
day outside is less appealing than technological entertainments and climate-controlled comfort
inside. Also the horrifically energy in-efficient
tungsten light bulbs that have remained unchanged for a century are giving way to CFLs and LEDs
– greatly reducing the amount of energy required to light a room.
So, even assuming that DST is effective, it’s probably less effective with every with every
passing year. The bottom line is while some studies say
DST costs more electricity and others say it saves electricity, the one thing they agree
on is the effect size: not 20% or 10% but 1% or less, which, in the United States, works
out to be about $4 per household. $4 saved or spent on electricity over an entire
year is not really a huge deal either way. So the question now becomes is the hassle
of switching the clocks twice a year worth it?
The most obvious trouble comes from sleep depravation – an already common problem
in the western world that DST makes measurably worse.
With time-tracking software we can actually see that people are less productive the week
after the clock changes. This comes with huge associated costs.
To make things worse, most countries take away that hour of sleep on a Monday morning.
Sleep depravation can lead to heart attacks and suicides and the Daylight Saving Time
Monday has a higher than normal spike in both. Other troubles come from scheduling meetings
across time zones. Let’s say that your trying to plan a three-way
conference between New York, London and Sydney – not an easy thing to do under the best
of circumstances but made extra difficult when they don’t agree on when daylight saving
time should start and end. In the spring, Sydney is 11 hours ahead of
London and New York is five hours behind. But then New York is the first to enter Daylight
Saving Time and moves its clock forward an hour. Two weeks later London does the same.
In one more week, Sydney, being on the opposite side of the world, leaves daylight saving
time and moves its clock back an hour. So in the space of three weeks New York is
five hours behind London, then four hours and then five hours again. And Sydney is either
11, 10 or 9 nine hours from London and 16, 15 or 14 hours from New York.
And this whole crazy thing happens again in reverse six months later.
Back in the dark ages, this might not have mattered so much but in the modern, interconnected
world planning international meetings happens 1,000s and 1,000s of times daily – shifting
and inconsistent time zones isn’t doing netizens any favors.
And, to make matters worse, countries aren’t even consistent about daylight saving time
within their own borders. Brazil has daylight saving time, but only
if you live in the south. Canada has it too, but not Saskatchewan. Most of Oz does DST,
but not Western Australia, The Northern Territory or Queensland.
And, of course, the United States does have DST, unless you live in Puerto Rico, the Virgin
Islands, American Samoa, Guam, the Northern Marianas Islands or, as mentioned before Hawaii
and Arizona. But Arizona isn’t even consistent within
itself. While Arizona ignores DST, the Navaho Nation
inside of Arizona follows it. Inside of the Navaho Nation is the Hopi Reservation
which, like Arizona, ignores daylight saving time.
Going deeper, inside of the Hopi Reservation is another part of the Navaho Nation which
does follow daylight saving time. And finally there is also part of the Hopi
Reservation elsewhere in the Navaho Nation which doesn’t.
So driving across this hundred-mile stretch would technically necessitate seven clock
changes which is insane. While this is an unusual local oddity here
is a map showing the different daylight saving and time zone rules in all their complicated
glory – it’s a huge mess and constantly needs updating as countries change their laws.
Which is why it shouldn’t be surprising that even our digital gadgets can’t keep
the time straight occasionally. So to review: daylight saving time gives more
sunlight in the summer after work, which, depending on where you live might be an advantage
– or not. And it may (or may not) save electricity but
one thing is for sure, it’s guaranteed to make something that should be simple, keeping
track of time, quite complicated – which is why when it comes time to change the clocks
is always a debate about whether or not we should.�

25 thoughts on “Daylight Saving Time Explained

  1. It's the marketing by USA, it's messy, USA always likes to confuse people in order to create business and more sales

  2. Turkey left the DST few years back. It shouldn't be a big deal but for some reason our lawmakers chose the eastern time zone (GMT +3), which applies to only few cities in the Eastern Turkey and not the GMT +2, the time zone passes through EVERY SINGLE INDUSTRIAL AND POPULATION CENTER. So basically significantly more than half of the nation goes to work in the dark. Elementary-Preschool children included.

  3. Having lived through the USA's experiment with year-round DST, I can say that a major factor that didn't get covered in this video is what happens in the morning. In the winter we were heading off to school while it was still dark. If, instead, you settle on year-round standard time, then you have an extra hour of full-on daylight while you're still trying to catch final z's before your alarm goes off. Better have well-fitted sun-blocking curtains, and be ok with squandering a whole hour of daytime every single day. That's at the heart of the problem. It just makes sense both from our body's POV and for efficiency's sake to wake up and get the day going around dawn. The big headache with all DST systems is the discontiguous jumps, twice a year. There's no simple solution, dawn is a moving target. (And even its motion varies with the latitudes.)

  4. The main thing that triggered me is how Arizona doesn’t do Daylight Savings but this videos shows that they do…

  5. I am all for DST ! But are time zones not constructed well ? YEAH IT's a freaking mess! Also time is just a figment of human imagination!

  6. People hating on the DST, I don't get it. We essentially just "move" an hour of sunshine that you waste because you're sleeping to the end of the day, where you can actually enjoy it, that's a benefit that applies to a whole set of months.
    Is it really such a pain in the ass changing the clocks every now and then? Nowadays you don't even have to do it, your devices do it for you.

  7. Anyone who says DST is pointless has clearly never lived in a far northern or far southern area. For us, it’s a godsend.

  8. Considering it gets dark at 4pm in Ireland in the depths of winter I'm usually delighted to have the option of staying out enjoying nature time till 11pm in Summer

  9. I live in Phoenix, Arizona. I was thinking about how my state doesn’t participate in Daylight Saving Time, and was curious about whether or not that would be addressed. I was VERY pleasantly surprised and humored by the “Phoenicians will laugh in your face” bit? but I’ve made the drive switching the time zones 7 times and my phone and car clocks bugged out, good times.

    Great videos, keep it up!

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *