Chapter 02 Integrated Pest Management


Hello! It’s the Grower Pesticide Safety
Course Chapter 2 Integrated Pest Management. Chapter 2 starts on page 23 of
the manual. There are 20 slides in this presentation and it will take you about
15 minutes to review. Let’s get started. What will I learn? At the end of this
lesson you should be ready to define integrated pest management- IPM, describe
the components of IPM, identify opportunities for IPM in your cropping
system, list resources where you can find more information about IPM in your
farming operation. IPM, integrated pest management, it’s the process of planning
and taking steps that will prevent or manage pests. Farmers who practice IPM
monitor their crops for pests and use a variety of control methods when they are
needed. IPM includes pest identification,
monitoring for pest thresholds, choosing a variety of pest control methods, and
evaluation- how did your program work. As we work through the slides in this
chapter in your manual, we’ll review these five components. Your IPM plan includes many types of controls and depends on your pest – weeds, insects and diseases that you need to control. Crop experts can help you make
an IPM plan. Why use an IPM program? IPM programs can help you recognize
conditions that could lead to pest problems,
prevent pest problems from starting, manage pest problems when they do happen
and prevent them from happening again, reduce pesticide use, reduce
environmental and health risks, and prevent pests from becoming resistant to
pesticides, and develop long-term solutions for managing your pests. Can IPM
reduce your pesticide use? Well is it the right time to apply a pesticide? Do you know that? IPM, if you monitor for early signs of pests, you’ll be spraying all
when you reach the action threshold. You’ll know when you need to use a
pesticide. IPM begins with prevention. Prevention is an important part of IPM.
Many of the crop management decisions you make can help prevent or reduce pest
problems. Think about how you can prevent pest problems when you’re making crop
management decisions about seed quality and varieties, the health of the soil,
planting site, selection and plant nutrition, the amount of water available
and how it is managed, the effects of the local climate, even the handling and
marketing of harvested crops. IPM has five components: identification,
monitoring, thresholds, methods of control, and evaluation. And over the next few
slides we’ll review each of these five components. Starting with number one
identification. Correct identification of the pest and beneficial organisms — it’s
the key to effective pest management. You must first identify the pest and
beneficial organisms to find out about their biology, lifecycle, preferred
habitat, and other characteristics. When you have this information, you can plan
how to control the pest if necessary. You can also reduce the chances of damaging
the environment and other organisms by choosing the proper pest control. Pests
and beneficial organisms can be identified by physical appearance, damage
caused, life cycle, habits and the host plant or animal involved. Need help
to identify pests? There’s lots of help out there from agribusiness, government,
and university experts. The pest diagnostic clinic at the University of
Guelph is also a place to go to help you get the information you need to identify.
You can find information about taking and submitting samples on their website. Monitoring. Monitoring is regular
inspection and sampling to get an estimate of the size, extent, and location
of the pest populations. Monitoring allows you to see how crops are affected
by different conditions. You may need to monitor for the presence of beneficial
insects as predator mites in orchards for example or monitor for the weather
conditions that lead to disease outbreaks. And you want to keep accurate
records of your monitoring. Methods that you can use — collecting insects in traps,
counting the number of pests in a certain area, recording temperature,
humidity, rain fall, leaf wetness that could encourage certain diseases to
spread. Thresholds. Thresholds help you decide when the control is needed. Action
threshold is the point in time at which the pest needs to be controlled to
prevent the pest from causing unacceptable damage. So the time you
need to take action. The economic injury level. Some thresholds are set at the
economic injury level. The economic injury level occurs when the amount of
damage caused by the pest is equal to the cost of controlling the pest. Damage
may include losses in yield or quality as well the cost of labour and
pest control. The best place to look for information is always with the Ontario
Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs crop specialists and on their
websites. There’s lots of resources about the research that has gone on to support
determining these action thresholds and economic injury levels for individual
pests and crops. A certain amount of damage is usually
expected and tolerable up to a certain point. Your goal is to prevent the pests
from causing unacceptable loss and so you’ll monitor up to the time and you
will see when that action threshold is. Here’s an example of an action threshold
for soybean aphid and OMAFRA. the Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural
Affairs, OMAFRA, has a quick decision checklist you can go through, and they
have similar things for all the other pests. So if you can answer if YES to all
of the above questions then it would be time to apply a pesticide for aphid
control. Here’s an example of an economic threshold and this was determined
through the University of Nebraska and it’s for Bean Leaf Beetle on soybeans.
And it would be the beetles per sweep. And you’ll note the little star there.
The sweep would be for soybeans that are planted to 30 inch rows, and in brackets
the number of beetles per sweep, if it was drilled for seven inch rows. So based
on the crop value in U.S. bushels, U.S. dollars per bushel and the pesticide
costs, again US dollars per acre. But these kinds of information examples for
pests are available from OMAFRA crop experts and please seek them out so that
you can make a proper decision of when you really need to apply that pesticide
for a control. Number four — the methods of control.
I’ve got a little Venn diagram here — cultural, biological, genetic, physical, and
the pesticides, all fit together into an IPM program. And so those are all methods
of control and we divided them into those five groups. We review those groups
in the next few slides. So genetic methods — pest control using insect or
disease resistant plant varieties developed through traditional or genetic
engineered plant breeding. Cultural methods using good
growing practices of good land management, gives crops the best growing
conditions and prevents pests from developing or spreading.
So cultural pest control includes such things as crop rotation, varying planting
and harvesting dates, planting certified seed, which is low in weed seeds and
disease. Another method — the biological methods — use organisms to control the
pest. So these methods include releasing sterile insects to stop the pests from
reproducing, releasing beneficial parasites, predators or microorganisms to
attack the pests. So an example would be releasing parasites to control white
flies in the greenhouse, insect pheromones chemical produced by insects, may be
used to disrupt insect pests’ mating or to attract insect pests to a trap. And
microbial pesticides such as strains of BT can also target specific pests.
Soybean aphids can be controlled by several natural enemies including lady
beetles, minute pirate bugs. syrphid fly larvae and parasitic wasps.
Physical methods – that’s removing pests and preventing
them from entering the crop and examples here would include physical control
using screens to keep out insects, mulches to keep weeds down, and
cultivating fields to control weeds. Finally the chemical methods for pest
control — use pesticides that’s herbicides, insecticides, fungicides, repellents, bio
pesticides, and other registered products. And use those to suppress or repel the
pests. There are some pesticides approved for organic production and check with
your organic certification body for a list of pesticides accepted for organic
production. Evaluating the effectiveness of an IPM
program may be the most important part and you keep detailed records of
everything you do and the results that you get. And this information is going to
help you decide whether your current pest management program works and is cost
effective and why. Might determine if you need to purchase and use pesticides next
season. You can review your monitoring methods – Did your monitoring methods work?
Do you need to modify the plan for future years? And did you learn something
about pest forecasting and probably thinking ahead to other problems in the
future. IPM is an ongoing process and you want
to get the latest news. It’s complex because pests are able to change and
adapt. Keep yourself up to date about integrated pest management. Gather
information from government and business publications, crop and pest management
advisors and specialists, and the local colleges and universities. The Ministry
of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs, OMAFRA, has specialists an integrated
pest management for the crops growing in Ontario. Your first point of contact to the crop specialist is through the Agricultural Information Contact
Centre and they have a toll-free number 1-877-424-1300 and for the Northern Regional Office, also a toll-free number
1-800-461-6132 That’s a quick review of Integrated Pest
Management. Just an introduction of the basics and I hope if you have any
questions you can contact us through our phone line or [email protected]

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